The Ile-de-France region is located in the Northern part of France. It faces two different situation:
- Paris metropolitan area, densely populated and highly urbanised, in its centre,
- and a rural surrounding area.
The Ile-de-France region represents:
- 11 million inhabitants (910 hab/km2, almost 20% of the French population) but most of them are concentrated in Paris agglomeration with a
population 9.6 million,
- with a territory of 12072 km2 (2,2% of the national territory, with 19,8% being dense urbanised areas, 56,9% of natural and agricultural areas,
23,2% of forests).
It is mainly characterized by its density, in term of:
- commercial activities (about 30% of the national GDP)
- and particularly transports (4.5 personal vehicles, 128 million of kilometres covered each day, 800 km of highways and express roads and 2